Photo-ID catalogue

GLADIS NEGRA-GN is a juvenile (sex not determined). It is estimated to have been born around 2013. It appeared with a large head wound after the first interactions in July 2020 in the Estrecho de Gibraltar. This wound was healing, so that in 2021 the wound is not visible in the videos, although we do not have any good quality photos in this year. However, this same individual appeared with a very large wound behind the dorsal fin in February 2021 on its arrival in the Estrecho from its winter oceanic period, which has also been seen to be healing. Since July 2021 there has been no record of the animal as the frequency and intensity of interactions has decreased. In both cases the wound is of unknown origin, although it is not identified as the typical wounds that these orcas present from fishing lines in their interaction with longline fishing. The GN is considered deactivated, i.e. it does not have company in the interactions, or it assumed other roles in the group.

GN is always accompanied by GLADIS PEQUE-GP, as they are "sisters", GP was born in 2016 and is a female. The mother of both is GLADIS HERBILLE-GH, who is an observer but usually stays away from the boats, having only been photographed by whale watching boats in the Algarve after the interactions are over.

Evolution of the GN head injury in 2020.

Evolution of the injury behind the dorsal fin of GN in 2021

GLADIS BLANCA-GB, is one of the most active GLADIS of all, and also of her group. She is an adult female and has offspring that also interact. Her daughters are GLADIS FILABRES, born around 2015, and GLADIS TARIK born in 2021. Her mother, GLADIS LAMARI-GL, the matriarch, acts as an observer, having been seen only a couple of times in the videos of the interactions, but always far away. Among her descendants we find GLADIS CLARA-GC born around 2011 and GLADIS DALILA-GDL born in 2017, all of them registered as observers. This group constitutes a complete matrilineal line related to interactions.

GLADIS GRIS is another juvenile, of unknown sex, whose main flock is unknown, it is estimated that it was also born around 2014, and that in 2020 it was always observed interacting with GLADIS NEGRA and GLADIS PEQUE, but that in 2021 it was observed interacting with GLADIS ALBARRACÍN.

GLADIS ALBARRACÍN, is another juvenile of unknown sex, that has only been seen interacting since 2021, and that we have not been able to associate a main flock with it either.

GLADIS LAMARI-GL, an adult female, is the matriarch of the GB flock, acting as an observer in interactions, but always at a distance. 

GLADIS FILABRES, daughter of GB and matriarch group GL, juvenile of unknown sex, born around 2015.

GLADIS CLARA-GC born around 2011 and GLADIS DALILA-GDL born in 2017, both juveniles of unknown sex. Daughters of the matriarch GL and sister of the GB. They are observant in interactions.

GLADIS TARIK born in 2021, neonate of unknown sex. She is GB daughter. What is surprising in this case is that despite GB role as mother, she involves him in the interactions, so the motivation that leads them to this attitude is very strong. GB relationship with her sisters and daughters, being one of the most interacting orcas, is what gave rise to the hypothesis of the initiation of interactions due to an AVERSIVE motivation.

GLADIS HERBILLE-GH es una hembra adulta, madre de la GN y de GP.

GLADIS PEQUE-GP es una hembra juvenil, hermana de la GN e hija de la GH.


Finally, there is a last group of juveniles that have only been seen interacting with small motor boats, but not with sailboats. They are related to each other, but when they interact they have not been seen with adults around. They are GLADIS ISA-GI born in 2020 and GLADIS MATTEO-GM born in 2014, both are sisters and daughters of CORSICA, accompanied by their cousins GLADIS ESTRELA-GE born in 2016. 

The content of this information is an extract from the document: Alfredo López Fernández and Ruth Esteban Pavo (Coord). 2021. Report on the Elaboration of a scientific study on the interaction of the Orca (Orcinus orca) population in the Strait of Gibraltar with vessels for the design and proposal of prevention, action and management measures. Atlantic Killer Whale Working Group-GTOA/Coordinadora para o Estudo dos Mamíferos Mariños-CEMMA. LIFE INTEMARES project. Biodiversity Foundation.

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